Carbon footprint standards
As a robust and credible accounting of GHG emissions is an important step in achieving genuine carbon neutrality, the use of appropriate standards for calculating the carbon footprint is crucial. The most reliable and widely used standards are listed below:
ISO 14064: This ISO standard was developed in 2006 to provide governments, businesses, regions and other organisations with an integrated set of tools for programmes to quantify, monitor, report and verify greenhouse gas emissions. It is published in three parts, detailing specifications and guidance for the organisational and project levels, and for validation and verification.
BSI: PAS 2050: This Publicly Available Standard was developed by the British Standards Institution in 2008 as the world’s first framework methodology for carbon footprinting. The updated 2011 version provides a method for assessing the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of goods and services. Organisations can use it to assess the climate change impact of the goods and services they offer.
GHG Protocol: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol is an international accounting tool for governments and business leaders to understand, quantify, and manage greenhouse gas emissions. It was established by the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) in 1998 and first published in 2001. It served as the foundation of several international standards, including ISO 14064-1.
Bilan Carbone®: This diagnostic tool, developed by the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) in 2004, is an accounting method for greenhouse gas emissions for any organisation, industrial or tertiary companies, public administration, communities or territory. It is the best-known and most widely used system in France for the evaluation and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
In April 2013, the European Commission launched the Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) and the Organisation Environmental Footprint (OEF) in an attempt to create harmonisation among the current available alternatives.